One little accustomed folio in the history of the Russian ecclesiastical mission in China is that of the Boxer Rebellion. The year 1900, a baleful year in China’s history, became a breaking point for the Russian mission as well. This year went bottomward in history as the time of the cruelest acts of the Yìhétuán, or “Righteous Fists of Harmony,” an about religious movement, which is accustomed in Europe according to adverse English adaptation as the “Boxer Rebellion.” It was directed adjoin foreigners, whose access in the Chinese Empire was abundantly added through the aggression of missionaries from the West. The credo of this anarchy was anti-Christian.
The son of the aboriginal Chinese hieromartyr, Metrophanes Tsi Chun, asleep by the Yìhétuán, Archpriest Sergei Chan, who was miraculously saved, afterwards wrote of the Yìhétuán, “This was an affiliation accepting a common framework (communal table), and absorbed the bodies with their teaching on abnormal admiral with the ambition of exulting China and antibacterial the foreigners […]. Foreigners were alleged devils, baptized Chinese were alleged their minions, and the non-baptized who associated with them were alleged accessory minions; the boxers were beheld as a adorable army.”
The Yìhétuán set up their agnostic shrines everywhere, and performed sacrifices. Until Spring of 1900, the official government of China was adequate by the adopted missions, but by summer, the Empress Dowager Cixi ordered the army to abutment those rebelling in the capital. Statesmen doubtable of access with foreigners were punished. All the foreigners in the ambit fled to Peking, gluttonous ambush in the admiral arena in city’s southern part. Back the apostasy overtook the capital, the Arch of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission, Archimandrite Innocent (Figurovsky) and his colleagues larboard Beiguan and confused into the Russian Embassy. They took with them alone the age-old amount of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk, brought from Albazin by Fr. Maxim Leontev in 1685, and admired abbey vessels.
The Chinese authorities placed ten spear-bearing guards alfresco the Mission, but by June 11, the Mission was austere to the ground; its library, archives, and vestry were destroyed. The boxers bent 222 Orthodox Chinese, who became the aboriginal Chinese martyr-saints. Amidst them were Priest Metrophanes, the aboriginal Chinese priest, advancing in Japan by St. Nicholas, the enlightener of Japan. At the action of the Mission head, the anniversary of the Chinese new martyrs was instituted by adjustment No. 2874 of the Holy Synod, April 22, 1902. Their charcoal were active in the abbey coffin committed to their memory—the Abbey of the Holy Martyrs. Abounding of these charcoal were incorrupt.
The description provided beneath of the abolition of Beiguan is taken from the article, “Material for the acts of the martyrs in China,” and comprises a allotment of the addendum fabricated by Archpriest Sergei Chan, who witnessed those abhorrent days. In mid May, the boxers austere bottomward the Orthodox abbey and academy in Dundinan afore the eyes of Fr. Sergei, who was able to abscond to Peking. Aloft his accession in Beiguan on May 26, Fr. Sergei told of the adventure to the arch of the Mission.
“After alert to us attentively, Fr. Archimandrite anon beatific a letter about it to the southern podvorye, to the Russian ambassador. The abutting day, the agent himself came to Beiguan (to the arctic podvorye), in adjustment to argue all the Russian missionaries to appear to the admiral analysis beneath aegis by the military. The agent advised it his assignment to assert aloft this, so that the lives of the missionaries would not be at risk. As for property, the Chinese government said it would acknowledgment for its safety, and therefore, back they able to leave, the missionaries alone arrested aggregate by description, but did not booty annihilation with them added than the age-old amount of St. Nicholas. Just afore six o’clock in the evening, the arch of the Mission, Archimandrite Innocent, Hieromonk Avraamy, and Affect Vasily Skrizhalin larboard for the Abbey of the Meeting in the admiral quarter. Afterwards this, our Christians who lived about the Mission began to abandon gradually: some to their ancestors in the south of town, some to added apartments. Rumor began to broadcast that the Mission would be austere downed if not today, afresh tomorrow.
“During those days, from May 13 to 27, rumors of the boxers came afterpiece and closer. The streets became acutely added animated; masses of poor, unknown, brief bodies appeared. The boxers with red bands on their accoutrements and legs started actualization angrily on the streets, casual forth in crowds and in aggressive order. A few approved to breach into the admiral analysis on a cart. One was captivated in the German Embassy. On the black of May 17, May 31 according to the Russian reckoning, at 8:00 in the evening, the afire of the Mission began. Alpha with the southern town, throughout the absolute burghal of Peking and its suburbs, the insurgents austere not alone the houses of Europeans, but additionally neighborhoods breadth Chinese Christians lived. The absolute breadth in the basin breadth the burghal of Peking is amid was aflame by the afterglow of fires. Abhorrence reigned everywhere, and everywhere were heard shouts and moaning.
“During that night hundreds of boxers accompanied by apple crowds and beggars approached Beiguan. The leaders, that is, the absolute boxers, breadth disconnected into three classes according to the rank of their training, or to be added precise, their adeptness to get into an astral state. According to a folk belief, which is aggregate by anybody from the government and admirable princes to the simple folk, these boxers of the accomplished three ranks are absolutely bulletproof by brand or gun. They do not charge to use blaze in adjustment to bake bottomward buildings—it is abundant for one of them to point to a abode and it will bake bottomward by itself. They alleged to anybody to bark ‘sha’, meaning, ‘kill’, (that is, the Christians), and it seems that there was not a distinct actuality at that time who did not bark ‘sha.’
“At 9:00 in the morning, account came from the south of boondocks that the boxers would anon appear here. I beatific chat of this to the homes of Christians. Back they heard this, abounding Christians alternate to their homes, while others, to the contrary, larboard their homes. Abhorrence affected them to accumulation together. Over thirty bodies followed afterwards me, and we absolved accomplished the north-east bend of the burghal walls against the south. Anon we saw a ample army of bodies affective appear the podvorye from the south, acclimatized torches. Afore the boxers arrived, the Chinese guards absolved about the Mission battlefront their rifles, but then, calm with the bodies who came, they started annexation the podvorye, afterwards which was credible the bonfire and smoke of the fire. Neighbors say that back the abbey was austere there were no added than twenty people. We absolved to Dunch Zhi Men artery breadth the column soldier comforted us, adage that they affliction the abolition of the Christians, that the Christians had appear to Peking not of their own will, but were taken bound at the alpha of the Manchurian dynasty. From 8:00 in the morning to 11:00 at night, shouts could be heard calling for the annihilation of Christians. By 12:00 all was quiet, and we alternate to our homes abreast the podvorye. Bonfire from the fires were still ascent high, and a decidedly aerial colonnade of blaze was aloft the church, as if the afterglow was surrounding the accomplished church. We were abashed back we saw it, and prayed, cerebration that the Lord acclimatized the Abbey to bake because of our sins. We backward calm until morning, and alone back it angry ablaze did we activate to separate, anniversary to his own home.”
Just the same, the basic day of the martyric afterlife of Orthodox Chinese was June 11, 1900. Actuality is the affidavit of the arch of the Mission as to their podvig:
“On the eve, there were already proclamations pasted forth the streets calling the pagans to annihilate the Christians, and aggressive with afterlife anyone who dared to adumbrate them. During the night, the boxers appeared with afire torches in all genitalia of Peking, advancing Christian homes, avaricious the blighted Christians and disturbing them, aggravating the force them to abdicate Christ. Abounding who were abashed at the tortures and afterlife alone Orthodoxy in adjustment to save their own lives, and austere aroma afore the idols. Others, however, were adventurous of torment, and courageously witnessed Christ. Terrifying was their fate. Their stomachs were broken apart, their active cut off, they were austere in their homes. Christians were searched out and destroyed during all the blow of the canicule of the rebellion. Afterwards antibacterial their homes, the Christians were taken alfresco the burghal gates to the boxers’ agnostic shrines, breadth they were interrogated and austere in bonfires. According to the affidavit of agnostic eye-witnesses themselves, some of the Orthodox Chinese met afterlife with amazing self-denial. The Orthodox catechist Pavel Van died as a agonize with adoration on his lips. The abecedary of the Mission, Eya Ven, was bent twice. The aboriginal time, the boxers cut her afar and threw her bisected animate on the ground. Back she revived, the bouncer (a pagan) heard her moans, and brought her into his guardhouse. But afterwards a while the boxers bedeviled her again, and this time they bent her to death. Both times, Eya Ven blithely witnessed Christ afore her tormentors.
“Amongst those who suffered for Jesus Christ were the Albazin, birth of those august Albazins who brought the ablaze of Orthodox Christian acceptance to the basic of China, Peking, in 1685 […] Abounding Christians, ambuscade from danger, aggregate in the home of Fr. Metrophanes. Amidst them additionally were his above detractors, but he did not debris them refuge. Seeing that some were fainthearted, he encouraged them, adage that times of troubles had come, and it is adamantine to abstain them. He went several times that day to attending at the austere church. On June 10, at about 10:00 in the evening, soldiers and boxers amidst the home of Fr. Metrophanes. There were up to seventy Christians there at the time; the stronger ones ran away, while Fr. Metrophanes and abounding others, mainly women and children, remained, and were tortured. Fr. Metrophanes sat in the backyard alfresco his home; the boxers broken his chest, and he fell afore the date tree. Neighbors abject his anatomy to the abode breadth the Mission almshouse was. Afterwards Hieromonk Avraamy took the anatomy of Fr. Metrophanes, and in 1903, back the barbecue of the martyrs was celebrated, it was placed with the others in the abbey of the martyrs, beneath the chantry […] In Fr. Metrophanes’ ancestors were his wife Tatiana, from the Li ancestors three sons: the eldest, Isaiah, the second, Sergei—now an Archpriest—and the third, Ivan. On June 10, Tatiana able the boxers with the aid of her son’s, Isaiah’s, fiancé, but the abutting day, June 11, nineteen bodies […] were accomplished in the morning by decapitation. Isaiah, age twenty-three, served in the accoutrements division. On June 7, the boxers accomplished him by beheading on the ample artery abreast the Pin chi men gates, because he was already accustomed to be a Christian. Maria, age nineteen, Isaiah’s fiance, came to Fr. Metrophanes’ abode two canicule afore the boxer progrom, adulatory to die with the ancestors of her bridegroom. […] Sergei, Fr. Metrophanes’ son, approved three times to actuate her to hide, but she answered, “I was built-in abreast the Abbey of the Most Holy Mother of God, and I will die here,” and she remained at the abode breadth the abbey already was. Anon soldiers and boxers acclimatized there, and she died a martyric death, because afterlife to be a abandonment into abiding rest. Ivan was alone eight years old. On June 10, in the evening, back they asleep his father, the boxers afraid his amateur and cut off his toes; his adenoids and aerial were additionally severed. His brother Isaiah’s fiancé was able to save him from afterlife by ambuscade him in the outhouse. Back bodies asked him if he was in pain, he answered that it is not aching to ache for Christ. Added boys fabricated fun of him […] Ivan asked the neighbors for water, but not alone did they debris him, they collection him away.
“Protasius Chan and Irodion Siu, not yet baptized at the time, witnessed that they saw that boy with his blood-soaked amateur and feet; the wounds were actual deep, but he acquainted no pain, and back he was afresh taken by the boxers, he showed no abhorrence and went calmly. One old man bidding his sympathy, saying, “For what is the boy to blame? It is his parents’ accountability that he became the a addict of the devil.” Others aerial him up for mockery, or artlessly casting audacious amusement at him. Thus was he led like a sheep to the slaughter.”
In the eighth affair of Account of the Brotherhood of the Orthodox Abbey in China, June 1, 1905, we acquisition the acutely affecting and alarming curve committed to Orthodox victims of the angry boxers’ movement in China, entitled, “Praise of the slain.”
“Shining with the alpha of abiding joy, access from us base ones this band of praise, alloyed from the commendations of your acceptable activity and august end!
1)You, priest of God Metrophanes Tsi, the aboriginal Chinese alleged to pastoral service, who affected abundant to construe the account books, and by your admirable activity becoming the account of your flock; you additionally affected abundant over its airy growth, sorrowed over it, your anatomy afflicted over the others’ illnesses, account you yourself breadth not accountable to abiding affliction to the end of your life. The difficult altitude of association life, the absence of moral support, and finally, your neighbors’ backbiting were the causes of your cerebral breakdown. But your end was glorious: your chest, blood-soaked by the spears of the enemies of Christ, like a bore alone to us the candied affirmation that you will anytime be the animated agent for the conservancy of your flock, as you were in your lifetime. Your spouse, Tatiana, the above deaconess of the church, aware Chinese women with ablaze of the Gospels, advancing them for the Holy Baptismal font, showed them an archetype of how they charge ache for acknowledgment of the faith. She was bent several times, abject through the streets and beheaded. Your son, the adolescent Ioann, adolescent in years but developed in mind, brought the adorableness of his face as a cede to God: his adenoids and aerial were severed, but he acquainted no pain, confessing to all Christ Who adequate him!
2) Pavel Van, you were a catechist, a preacher of the Word, and you accomplished by chat and deed. Knowing that the accuracy is not with adorable words of man’s wisdom, but in affirmation of the Spirit and of ability (1 Cor. 2:4); nevertheless, you took affliction to access all the all-important arbitrary knowledge, in adjustment to acknowledgment those allurement about the faith: you arguable with agents of agnostic confessions, accepting the ability and ability in exact battle. A few canicule afore your afterlife you were accustomed by the Russian Holy Synod to accept the rank of the priesthood, and you brought your cede afore the Lord—having been beheaded as you knelt in prayer, which began here, and concluded in the approaching life. Your spouse, Sara, followed you to a bigger life!
3) Innocent Fan, you were the Abbey steward, and cared for its actual needs, fed and clothed the acceptance of the Mission school. The absolute accommodating area of the Mission was entrusted to you; and how acquiescently and anxiously did you address your reports! There are still bodies active now who acclimatized alms from your hands. You comforted their bodies while caring for their souls as well, for which you yourself were preserved incorrupt: three years afterwards your afterlife we saw your alpine amount about absolutely clear by decay. You were alleged as a deacon, and although you were not yet ordained, you directed the choir who sang celebrity to God, and accomplished the aforementioned assignment of administration that was entrusted to deacons of age-old times! Your spouse, Elena, a pious bedmate of her own home, aloft accouchement accurate to God—Eumeny, Sophia, and Nadezhda. These adolescent sprouts of Christ’s acreage acclimatized affliction calm with their mother: their arms, acclimatized from an aboriginal age to bend themselves in prayer, were burst by the agents who threw their bodies into the well!
4) Eya Ven, you were the baton of the academy of Albazin maidens and an adviser of those who came to the Christian Faith; in your martyric afterlife you accustomed that the assignment of Christian women is not alone to accept in Christ, but to ache for His Holy Name.
5) Miron Zhui and Maria, in your connected attempt with abjection your were able to accession your ample ancestors in the abhorrence of God; your children—Martha, Anastasia, Eudocia, Innocent, Savva, Nilus, Maria, and Elena were the best acceptance in the school, and were fit for the Commonwealth of God, account they did chase afterwards you to the abode breadth there is neither bondage nor woe. Your ancestors were Albazins, already captives, and you are now aces to accept “the abandon of God’s children!”
6) Andrei Chu, you were already avant-garde in years back you accustomed Christianity, but as one who acclimatized backward to assignment in the Christ’s vineyard, you formed afterwards blow to book the Horologion and Psalter; and back chat of the Boxer persecutions accomplished your ears, you absitively to abide at your assignment and did not cease it until you were asleep at that aforementioned work!
7) Ekaterina Chun, the admired mother of a ample family, as a added you were able to absolute your domiciliary so that your accouchement were credible to be advantageous sowers in God’s field: Vitus, Matthew, Nikifor, Kirill, Vassa, and Elena—known as co-workers of the clergy, aiders in the sermons!
8) Athanasius A, you were a poor cripple, hunchbacked and ample on all fours. You were low in anatomy but alpine in spirit, and this acme was abnormally credible during the final account of your life. A bookbinder by profession, you admired additionally to sing in the choir in a affable octave. During the time of calamity you gave no abode in your affection to abhorrence or fear, and encouraged your ancestors to do the same: your wife, Barbara and three children, that they should abide in the Mission yard, alone by all. And back the pagans abject you to your death, your angry to them with words of instruction; you were acrimonious with their insanity, and said to the apprenticed ones that they do not apperceive what they should accept in or how; you were appreciative that your adoptive ancestor was the acclaimed missionary, Isaiah Polikin; you actually appear to your tormentors that if they ambition to annihilate you, let them do so in no added abode than in the cloister of the Mission, because you ambition to die in the abode breadth you were spiritually born!
9) Captain Li, who came from a ancestors of blue-blooded Manchurians, now the ascendant dynasty, with admirable abasement you formed as printer at the Mission columnist press, as a biographer of notes, and as a singer. Your adulation of activity in this activity assures aristocratic blow in the future!
10) Peter Li, you were a aloof of atmospheric changes and accustomed phenomenon, and through them you came to apperceive your Creator to Whom you admired to return, not abrogation your column in times of persecution!
11) Symeon Si, an Albazin, for a bisected a aeon you lived in the Mission backyard assuming assorted obediences; the chuch was afire by the candles you made, the prosphora you broiled served in the circadian Liturgy, and your bell-ringing alleged the bodies to prayer!
12) Clement Kui, you were an aid on the cliros in the Abbey services!
13) Leo Hai, the apprehensive son of an adamant father, who suffered abundant from him during this life; your bashfulness became an old adage for us, but endemic is the commonwealth of Heaven!
14) Anna Zhui, you were asleep in your home, but you accomplished your agents for the abode of God: now your son is a affect and serves the Abbey and the needs of his poor brothers, and your babe directs the academy of your sisters—Albazins!
15) Athanasius Shuan, a adolescent man who fed his parents and abundant brothers, you accomplished abundant accomplishment in the account of the Epistles in Slavonic!
16) Alexei Chzhan fu Zhun, the abbey bouncer in the village; the artlessness and artlessness of your faith, your amore of affection and accord against the missionary fathers who came to you is acclaimed to all. You and your ancestors accomplished the same, and baptized all the bodies of your household, account did they chase you to a bigger life.
17) Kyr Chzhan, Anna Chzhan, Jonah Gui, Olga A, Elena Ho, Anna Lin, Joseph Fu, and added admirable elders—who bare your death, or who was agitated by your life, aptitude as it was aloft a staff? But you fell beneath the knives of the murderers, dispatch your carriage into a bigger life, and absolution yourselves from the affliction of age-old bodies.
18) Sergei Phillipov Chzhan, you were a accompanist in the Dormition Abbey for about a bisected century; may the Lord accede you to sing the praises of His breeding in the choir of the saints. In truth, “Many are your names and abundant is your reward; adjure for our souls!”
This account is but a baby allocation of those Orthodox Chinese who suffered in 1900. The arch of the Peking Theological Mission presented the Synod with a account of 222 names of Orthodox Chinese who were asleep for their faith, and at the aforementioned time interceded for permission, in afterthought of these aboriginal Chinese martyrs for the faith:
1) To body a abbey on the armpit of the destroyed Mission abbey in Peking committed to All the Holy Martyrs of the Orthodox Church, with a tomb beneath the chantry for the burying of the basic of the collapsed Orthodox Chinese; and
2) To convention for the Orthodox association in China the anniversary of the tenth and eleventh of June in the afterward manner: On June 10, to beam a austere fast, appointment it to the afterward Friday should the date abatement on a Sunday or Saturday, and to serve a chant Liturgy with a Pannikhida for the collapsed Orthodox Chinese, and on June 11, to conduct a austere account in the name of the Holy Martyrs of the Orthodox Church, with a cantankerous advance to the abode breadth Orthodox Chinese bodies were slain, or about the church, with the singing of the irmos “On the after-effects of the Sea,” and afterwards the accepted singing of “many years,” to accent anamnesis abiding for all those Chinese who died advantageously for the Orthodox Faith.
Having advised the Archimandrite Innocent’s request, and accepting no objections, the Holy Synod accepted it as accounting on April 22, 1902 (ukaz No. 2874)…
Archimandrite Avraamy describes this accident in his brochure, “Orthodox Chinese Mission,” printed in Moscow in 1903:
“On the eve, June 10, alpha at noon, the charcoal of the martyred Christians were agitated in a baby advance from the abode of their acting blow to the tomb beneath the abbey of All the Holy Martyrs, with the singing of the burial canon. This was preceded by several canicule of exhumation of the adored charcoal from the apple and wells. Blessed were the easily vouchsafed to blow them… Four bodies were so able-bodied preserved that they could be accustomed as the choir administrator Innocent and his family. By 6:00 in the evening, all the charcoal were agitated to the tomb and placed on a continued table. Back Vladyka Innocent arrived, the singing of the Parastas (requiem Vigil service) began, alternating in Chinese and Slavonic…
“The tomb could not fit all those who had appear to pray, and abounding of them stood alfresco in the yard. Anniversary one could admit the names of their fathers, mothers, and brothers amidst those commemorated… Abounding had tears in their eyes…
“During the Vigil service, the accomplished exoteric of the trapeza church, the Archbishop’s house, the tomb, and the absolute garden lane and basin bank blossomed with the bonfire of Paschal illumination. Anyone who was able to access the Mission backyard and see it will continued bethink those moments. Three years ago, a thousand-strong army rumbled on this actual site, and the arena was aflame by the bonfire of afire buildings. The hearts of all were attenuated with the abhorrence of death; it was a St. Bartholomew’s day massacre. It is cogent that the killing of Christians in 1900 began on the night of June 11, back the Abbey ceremoniousness the anamnesis of the Apostles Bartholomew and Barnabas. Now the army is appetite to accompany in our triumph! And who are the causes? How abutting they are to us; their souls rejoice calm with us from the heavens, their bodies lay at rest, adorned with flower, and the tomb is now accessory with greenery and lamps; the account of the Psalter continues all night, but the atmosphere reminds us of a Paschal service: the asleep shall resurrect, and those in the tombs shall arise…
“In the morning a moleben with a absolution of the amnion was served in the tomb, and sixteen Chinese were actuality able for baptism, accepting the names of the added acclaimed Chinese martyrs: Pavel, Innocent, Peter, Barbara, Matrona, Ioann, Anna, Antonina, and others. All the newly-baptized acclimatized the Holy Mysteries at the Liturgy, at which the seventy-year-old ancient catechist, Innocent, a Manchurian, gave a address in Chinese on the text, abhorrence not, little flock! At the end of the Liturgy, with the singing of “The after-effects of the sea … the advance confused appear the tomb of All the Holy Martyrs. Banners and icons went afore them, the Cross, Holy Gospels, and a allotment of the charcoal of St. Innocent of Irkutsk breadth carried! The advance chock-full at the access of the tomb; the alarm campanology ceased, and His Eminence entered the tomb […] At the singing of “Weep not for me O Mother, the bodies of the martyrs were bargain into the marble grave with the advertisement of “Memory Eternal” to all who accept died for the Faith! The advance confused from the tomb to the places breadth the Christians were tormented; there a Litia was served. Afresh the advance confused appear the Mission podvorye, forth the streets of Peking, against the Andingmen gates, from which about 200 sazhens (1,400 feet) away, was the abode breadth several Christian families were tortured, amid by a triangular brick wall, at the action of two ample roads. A Litia was articulate at the graves, and the advance confused added forth the Kalgan alley of missionaries, by which the cemetery that was atrociously besmirched by the boxers was adequate to its above address and honor. At 2:00 in the afternoon, the advance alternate to the trapeza Dormition Church, not far from the tomb, breadth a chantry fabricated of Chinese mats with three compartments was erected on the armpit of the above accommodation of the arch of the Mission, and a commemorative meal was offered. There “Memory Eternal” was articulate to the new martyrs, aces of the account of the aboriginal centuries of Christianity!”
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